A Study of Role of Women in Jaina Mantra, Tantra and Yantra

A Study of Role of Women in Jaina Mantra, Tantra and Yantra

A paper presented at the UGC sponsored National Seminar on women and Jainism

held at the Acharya Nagarjuna University on

February 11th  and 12th, 2012

K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, B.Sc., M.A., A. M. I. E., C.Eng (I)., B. L.,

Independent Researcher.Superintendent of Central Excise.

Director – Institute for the Study of Ancient Indian Arts and Sciences

25 (Old.9), Venkatachala Iyer Street,

West Mambalam, Chennai – 600 033

Cell: 98402 92065

e- mail: kopallerao@yahoo.co.uk

Mantra, tantra and yantra: The words and expressions Mantra, Tantra and Yantra have been used differently with diversified connotations that could be divided broadly into two categories – one philosophical, spiritual, esoteric, divine and useful to human life and  second considers them related to sex, pornographic[1], obscene, vulgar and so on. Unlike Arthur Avalon or Sir John Woodroffe, most of the western and non-Indian, of course some Indians influenced by the former, have understood and implied such meanings in their interpretation of the texts and as well as the drawings, icons and sculptures. In fact, the interpretation of ‘mudras’ even today exposes their hallow knowledge or willful misinterpretation. Here, in the context, the following meanings are taken[2]:

Mantra: It is sound of syllables, words and expressions producing vibrations with specific frequencies and wavelengths. These sounds / sound patterns form different “tantric” patterns, diagrams or designs. Common people might take its meaning as spell, charm, curse and magic formulae.

Tantra: ‘Tan’ means ‘spread out or ‘extended’ and hence It is a pattern of the threads are ‘spread out or ‘extended’ to form a specific design[3]. It is formed from a basic simple plan and is repeated successively to form different designs. However, such pattern has to be in a closed fashion. Here, the sound waves are converted into two dimensional geometrical figures.

Yantra: Based on the above blueprint, two dimensional figures, a device is constructed that is known as Yantra.  Here, the sound waves are converted into three dimensional geometrical figures.

As for as Jaina practices of Mantra, Tantra and Yantra are concerned there have been few studies, though a lot of drawings, icons and sculptures are available. The polemics between Swetambaras and Digambaras had perhaps suppressed the subject matter to be discussed and debated in detail.


Jaina Mantra, tantra and yantra: The last Tirthankara, Mahavira was born of Jnatri clan and known as Nigantha Nataputta by the Buddhists[4]. The Jaina scriptures narrate about his possession of magical powers and performance of miracles. Mahavira caused death to his rival Makkhali Gosala at Sravasti, the leader of Ajavika. Actually, the latter employed magic power against the former, but nothing happened[5], however, he died on the 7th day of the incident by the magic power of Mahavira[6]. This incidence implies that Mahavitra had tantric powers. His disciples also possessed such powers and the Jaina canonic and non-canonic stories describe them faithfully. Therefore usage of such powers could have been possible only with recantation of certain mantras meant for the purposes. Tattvartha.Agama.sutra, Vykhya.prajnapti.Vrutti etc., give the following incidences[7]:

  1. Magic flash or fire hurled by an infuriated monk.
  2. Fiery missile causing blisters
  3. Mahavira countering a hot missile hurled by his opponent with a cool one of his own.
  4. Monks producing objects by magic
  5. Monks changing themselves into different objects and moving in the air without support.
  6. Monks floating and flying in air.
  7.  Disciples of Mahavira curing diseases with their phlegm, the dirt and the filth as medicines.
  8. The Nishatha sutra and the Bhasya record different magical practices followed – Koua, Bhui, Pasina, Pasinapasina, Nimitta etc.
  9. Charms acquired by performing rites during the dark days of Caturdasi and astami (Nissitha Curni) employing the dead body of an uninjured person, endowed with auspicious marks (Acaranga Tika).
  10. Satyaki performed extreme practice by hanging himself upside down to acquire powers.

These are only illustrative and not exhaustive. All these go to prove that the Jaina Tirthankar, his disciples and monks practiced Tantrik system by learning and chanting mantras. Chanting mantras with performance of rites imply invocation of certain Goddesses and their forms in sculptures and icons. However, the atheistic view of Jainism would have suppressed such dependence upon the femalr goddesses for their power (Sakti). Not only Jaina historians, but western ones have also appeared to have suppressed the tantric aspect of Jainism as noted below.

The possible spread of Jainism in the West: There have been many comparative studies drawing parallels between Buddhism and Christianity, but there are a few studies comparing Jainism and Christianity[8]. In fact, Jainism, particularly, Digambara form had influenced the origin, formation and development of Christianity. The concepts of Sin / Karma, sacrifice / dying (on the cross, just like starving facing north and dying), immaculate conception / virgin birth[9], nunnery and their exclusion and so many other beliefs and systems have been taken from Jainism only. The Ambika image – mother with child has been an archetype for ‘mother goddess cult’ for other civilizations. Here, Vincent Smith was so persistent to prove that the Dakshasila sculptures were older than the Mathura to prove that the archetype spread from west to east, instead of east to west[10]. The Essences and Gnostics proved the fact and therefore, the westerners might have tried to project the Buddhist influence on Christianity, instead of Jainism, as that would perhaps affect their historical hypotheses.

Radhakamal Mukerjee[11], P. C. Bagchi[12], and others have pointed out as to how the Tantric art spread to beyond India or Greater India from Bengal to Burma, Nepal and Tibet and then to China and Southeast Asian countries. Here, the spread of Hindu and Buddhist Tantric practices with texts prevalent and their influence on Chinese, Tibetan and SEA Cosmology, Mandalas, temple architecture etc., have been discussed. However, the role of Jaina Tantras is not mentioned. That is the spread is proved in the east, north-east, southeast, even in the north crossing the Himalayas, but not in the northwest or west of India. Therefore, there is a reason to believe that the influence of Jaina tantras could be found on the west than the east, as their competitors had already established themselves in those areas.

Alexander was perhaps the first person to abduct some gymnophists from Gandhara / north-west area to Greek. In fact, they were nude ascetics, Digambaras found practicing Yoga and other exercises. The Greek gymnasium[13] had very close resemblance with the Jaina Digambara society. Later the influence of Swetambara could be noted in the Essene communities as they were wearing white robes following strict celibacy. They lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism, voluntary poverty / renunciation, daily immersion / purity of mind and body, and abstinence from worldly pleasures, including marriage. The Indian texts categorically declare that the Greeks were excommunicated Khsatriyas migrated from the north-western Indian states, Rajasthan and Gujarat or spread after the Mahabharat War and the consequent disturbances and settled in western parts of India.  The origin of Essenes has been shrouded in mystery and the western sources do not specifically point out the facts[14].

However, there been have some scholars who have noted such connection. Ernest de Bunsen records[15], “Philo connects indirectly the Essenes with East-Asiatic religions. This connection is confirmed by the austere life of the Essenes, resembling the asceticism of Brahmans, Jains, and Buddhists, as also that of the Magi”. Edward Pococke has also pointed out the close resemblance between the Digambaras and the nude Greeks[16]. Other scholars found similarities between the Gnostics and the Jains[17]. Incidentally, Chandragupta Maurya was a Jain Emperor who all the way came down to Sravanabelagola to breath last by performing the penance of “facing north”. Though, Indian sources point out that Asoka, his son was a Jain, modern historians have established him as a Buddhist monarch extending his western territories up to Persia and Greece. Here, in the context that he was Jaina King might suit the spread of Digambaras to Greece and other places[18]. In fact, Rajatharangini records that he was Jaini King who built thousands of Viharas in Kashmir. However, the western historians wanted him to be Buddhist. Coming to Jaina scholars, who deny the Tantric practices among the Jains, they obviously ignore the Yogini cult existed among the Jaina nuns.


Denial of scriptural reading to women: After discussing about the denial of studying scriptures by the Jaina women, Padmanabh S. Jaini[19] points out that only men were empowered to invoke “guardian-deities” to help them in debates but, women were excluded.  “Such powers, called labdhis , were deemed the prerogative of males only, who generated them through the impetus of their austerities and yogic powers. The laity, of course, was considered incapable of developing such powers, but society at large regarded nuns equally powerless, barred by their sex from invoking these deities or from indulging in any form of Tantric practices to call up these “guardians.” Padmanabh S. Jaini went on to discuss about the position,

The Digambara writer Subhacandra’s statement that the Yapaniyas, unlike the Digambaras, read (i.e., accept) the (Brhat) kalpa , the Svetambara canonical texts of mendicant discipline, is confirmed by the works of Sakatayana, who quotes from them in support of strimoksa (see, for example, #26, #37, #42). This would indicate that the Yapaniyas did not share the Digambara view of the loss of the canon and probably possessed the same scriptures, albeit with variant readings, that were extant in the Svetambara tradition. The earliest evidence that the Yapaniyas had their own secondary scripture is provided by the eighth-century Svetambara acarya Haribhadra’s commentary (vrtti) called the Lalitavistara on the Caityavandana-sutra, a Prakrit liturgical text. It is said in the third verse of this text that even a single reverential greeting (namaskara) to the Jinas from Rsabha to Mahavira carries one across the ocean of samsara, whether the person be a man or a woman (ekko vi namokkaro jinavara Vasahassa  Vaddhamanassa, samsarasagarao tarei naram va narim va). Commenting on the word “narim,” Haribhadra says that the inclusion of women is to show that even they can attain the destruction of samsara in that very life, that is, without being born as males (strigrahanam tasam apitadbhava eva samsaraksayo bhavatiti jnapanartham), and then quotes a long Prakrit passage in support of the doctrine of strimoksa from a text that he calls the Yapaniya-tantra.

But, even from the days of Parsvanatha (879-776 BCE), the popularity of Sri Padmavati was there among the ‘attendant deities’. The Mathura sculptures prove such antiquity archaeologically. In fact, the Jaina tradition was not averse to have a work entitled “Yoniprabhrta” or Panchaparamesti mantra otherwise called “Jaina Gayatri”, which is still recited in all religious ceremonies and puja or worship. Worship of Sri Siddhacakra, the representation in a circular yantra or diagram for salvation together forming navapadas, has also been popular even today.

Dilemma over Yapaniya-tantra and its place for women: However, in the context of the position of women, she is intrigued by the usage of the word “tantra” and thus, commented, “This work, of unknown date and authorship, is no longer extant; and the title “tantra” applied to it is also quite unusual for a Jaina work. But judging by the content of the portion quoted by Haribhadra, the term “tantra” probably means no more than a sastra or a polemical treatise in prose written most probably against the Digambaras like Kundakunda who, as we have seen, had opposed the mendicant vows to women. In this passage, no longer than a few lines, the Yapaniya author seems to have been able to compile almost all the scriptural reasons, presented in a rather disorganized sequence, for not denying the attainment of the excellent dharma (i.e., moksa) to women. This Yapaniya-tantra thus probably served as the forerunner of Sakatayana’s Strinirvanaprakarana and possibly for that reason was not mentioned by him”. Probably, she does not discuss the role of Jaina women in the activities of Mantra, Tantra and Yantra, thus, brushing aside that ‘tantra’ name is unusual for a Jaina work. However, there are Jaina Tantric works as Jania mantras and yantras are available.

Yapaniya Jain order gave equality to women: Yapaniya was a Jain order in western Karnataka which is now extinct[20]. The first inscription that mentions them by Mrigesavarman (AD 475-490), a Kadamba king of Palasika who donated for a Jain temple, and made a grant to the sects of Yapaniyas, Nirgranthas (identifiable as  Digambaras), and the Kurchakas (not identified) and the last inscription which mentioned the Yapaniyas was found in the Tuluva region southwest Karnataka, dated Saka 1316 (AD 1394). Thus, nearly nine centuries, there was patronage to this group and it is understood from the depiction of goddesses in the Karnataka, Madhyapradesh, Orissa areas. According to Darshana-Sara, they were a branch of the Swetambaras sect, however they were regarded to be Digambara by Shvetambara authors. The Yapaniya monks remained naked but followed some Shvetambara views. They also possessed their own versions of texts that have been preserved in the Shvetambara tradition. The great grammarian Shakatayana, who was a contemporary of the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha (c.817-877), was a Yapaniya, as mentioned by Malayagira in his commentary on the Nandi Sutra. They provided equal rights to female-ascetics, indirectly giving importance to the female-goddesses and building of temples for them. Thus, it is evident that such female supporting or encouraging cult existed during the period of 5th to 14th centuries i.e, nearly for a thousand years and then disappeared. In fact, all the Yogini temples were destroyed by this time, till they were discovered in 19th and 20rth centuries and reconstructed with the available materials.

Mother worship and accommodation of Yoginis in Jaina religion: N. N. Bhattacharya[21] points out the influence of tantric practices on Jaina religion in earlier days as noted in the worship of “Mother Goddess”, accommodation of many devatas – Jaina Yaksinis like Ambika, Padmavati, Jvalamalini, Saraswati, and a host of Yoginis. The Jaina texts refer to Tantric practices of certain contemporary sects among them existed incorporating magical rites like the sat-karmas, curative spells, efficacy of mantras etc[22]. kulachara was practiced by the Jains also along with Pashandas, Kapaikas and Buddhists[23].  Modified Vamachara practices might have been incorporated in the Jaina Tantric system, as such Tantric system accommodated mainly women priests. The Yoginis occupy important place in Tantric practices and they are represented as eight Mathrikas and each Mathrika into eight characteristics and thus, totally 64 manifestations depicted in sculptures in Jaina temples. The Saptamatrikas with Ganapati converted int a females goddess becoming eight and their multiplication into 64 is easily understandable. The famous Yogini temples are at the following places:

  1. Hirapur village near Bubaneswar, Orissa.
  2. Ranpur Jharial, Orissa.
  3. Dudhai, Orissa.
  4. Lalipur, Orissa.
  5. Mithauli near Padhauli 11th cent.CE
  6. Bheraghat, Jabalpur.

As the Jaina sculptures depicting such Yaksinis have been dated to 11th – 12th centuries and with the destruction of these temples, the culture also disappeared, it could be implied that there is connection between these two incidences. During 10th-11th centuries, there had been a lot of temple building activities, but at the same time within two centuries, most of the temples were razed down by the invading Mughals. Had the Sankara’s unification of Indian religions or categorization of Sanmata been successful, these rational, radical and atheist cults must have been disappeared. Contrary, they were patronized by the rulers and thus there had been many temples constructed exclusively for Yoginis. Ironically, the same period is marked with the production of erotic literature like Kama-sutra, Ananga-Ranga etc.,

Cosmogony, Cosmology, men and women: The sculptures in Jaina temples depict the voluptuous misleading onlookers and observers that they were sculptured with sensual appeal and motive. Particularly, the sculptures that depict intercourse, copulation or union of male-female or with animals etc., definitely create an impression that the ancient Jaina ascetics were indulged in such practices. Even, if it is interpreted that such depictions have been only for tantric representations to convey esoteric connotation  and mysterious understanding, modern or any ordinary mind could not reconcile but strongly believe that they were pornographic only, if not more sexual.

It has to be noted that the westerners and non-Indians and even westernized Indians have interpreted that Indian women have been oppressed, suppressed, exploited and enslaved for thousands of years because of the male-dominated Hindu society supported by the Vedic and Dharmasastra scriptures. On the contrary, the Jaina and Buddhist religions liberated from the clutches of such forces granting rights and freedom.  How then such oppressed and suppressed women could have raised to the levels of “Yogini”, yet,  keeping them as “guardian-deities” or “attendant deities”, so that the monks and other male ascetics invoke them to get their blessings and boons. As for as the Hindu religion is concerned, Sakti makes Siva to fall and she stands on him or his dead body. However, there is no such corresponding pair in Jaina or Buddhist tradition of Tantric system.

Jaina and Buddhist religions originated, developed and spread at the same period and therefore, they had encounters at different levels. They had to fight with other religious sects philosophically, ethically and logically to establish their dominance and supremacy. Of course, as the then prevailing dominant and religion of majority people was Vedic and Hindu, they had to adopt and adapt many methods of inculturation in spite of their attempts to retain separate entities. Thus, in spite of their atheistic ideology, they had to incorporate many Vedic and Hindu deities in their fold with the same or modified names and characteristics to suit the common people. Thus, there had been more female goddesses in the Jaina pantheon catering to the needs and wishes of the “believers” of the new religion, though reportedly “non-believers” of God. 

Jaina and Buddha religions had thus to adjust with the concepts of female asceticism, their rights and privileges etc., within their belief system. Generally, researchers have pointed out that Buddhist nuns had more privileges than the Jaina counterparts, why even compared with the Vedic and Hindu counterparts, in spite of oppression and suppression[24].


Jainas ascetics and nuns

Buddhist ascetics and nuns

1 The Jaina ascetics were prohibited from reading scriptures The Buddhist women were composing scriptures.
2 In spite of their number domination over the monks, they could not get any prominence. They were recognized with their knowledge (as they could access to the education).
3 They never participated in debates. They were seen debating with great Preceptors and philosophers.
4 A male monk can become an Upadhyaya in three years, whereas, a nun requires thirty years. No such rules stipulated.
  A male monk can become an Acharya  in five years, whereas, a nun requires fifty years. In other words, a nun cannot become an Acharya in her life time. No such rules stipulated.
  Nuns were always inferior to the monks. Bikkunis were always subordinates to Bikku. A Bikkuni of a hundred years standing had to stand and salute a Bikkuni.
  The transformation of Malli to Mallinatha was much subjected to reluctance. No such exigency.
5 The Jaina nuns were restricted in their movements The Buddhist nuns were roaming in the Viharas and other places.
7 Even to die, permission had to be obtained from only a female-ascetic and not from Tirthankara or Principlal Acharya. No such exigency existed among the Buddhist nuns.

Under such circumstances, the Jains female ascetics and nuns might have tried to prove their capabilities through in-house practices like meditation, and yoga. As they were doing within the precincts of the delving places or at the remote places during their sojourn, they were naturally allowed or the monks did not interfere with their activities. This might have led to the creation of Jaina Yoginis / Joginis. Moreover, Jaina nuns appeared to have taken more interest in Cosmology and cosmography. Thus, their attempts to play with numbers, geometrical figures and drawings might have led to the practices of associating such mathematics and geometry with yogic practices. Rigorous practices and philosophical musings might have led to the “Tantric” mode of asceticism.

Significantly, the possession of magic powers and performance of miracles were not considered as a taboo, anathema or prohibited in Jainism, as Mahavira himself has been attributed with such practices. They were continued with his disciples also as could be seen in the Jaina canonical work like Ovajya[25]. The three superhuman qualities (aisesa) were considered in acquiring magical powers and they were mentioned ass vijja, joga and mantra[26].

  1. Vijja is accomplished by certain magical practices and is presided over by a female deity like Prajanpati.
  1. Mantra is accomplished by reciting (padhanasiddha) and is presided over by a male deity like Harinegamesi.
  1. Joga is a charm or magical incantation which causes enmity, allurement, eradication of the enemy and cures diseases or they are just tricks.

The names of “magical spells” as mentioned in the Jaina texts are just the names of Yoginis, popularly grouped into 64. Incidentally, the arts were categorized into 64 varieties[27]; 32 kinds of natya-vidhis were mentioned; eight types of auspicious symbols; thus the number 8 and its multiples played an important role in Jaina number system, astronomy and cosmology. Jaina scriptures encourage female education and a woman is expected to master 64 arts. One Sadhvi Narmadasundari, wife of Maheshvardalta was expert in all 64 kalas / arts[28]. Incidentally, 64 Kula-agamas are there and the 64-petal lotus has been prominent in tantric worship and as well as Jaina architecture[29].

M. B. Jhavery[30] points out that Samavayanga Rayapaseni LXXII says that 72 arts were prescribed for man which included Vidya and Mantra as 47th and 48th arts. Commentary  on Jambudvipa.prajnapti II, Sutra.30 reproduces the 72 arts from Rajaprasniya, but gives independently 64 arts for woman which include mantra and tantra as the 4th and 5th arts. Thus, he concludes that as these 72 or 64 arts were expected to be learned by everybody, it is evident that in those days, the generality of people used to be versed in vidyas and mantras[31].

Yaksha and Yakshini characteristics are attributed to or possessed by the Tirthankaras. Thus, the spirits, divinities or super natural powers were attributed to Garuda, Kubera, Gomedha, Kinnara, Brahma, Vara-nandi, Gopmukha and Tumuru. The other powers / saktis were already known in the tantric system, but incorporated in Jainism and they are Kalika, Vajrasrnkhala, Bhrkuti, Gauri, Jvalamalini and Mahamanasi. Thus, in spite of denials, the celebrated Jaina monks had composed Tantrik works[32] like –

  • Bhairavi-Padmavati-kalpa,
  • Jvalamalini-kalpa,
  • Rshi-mandala-mantra-kalpa,
  • Jagatsundari-prayoga-mala,
  • Sri-Chintamani-kalpa-sara,
  • Vidhi-prapa etc.,

M. B.  Jhavery[33] has pointed out that Jain mantra kalpas are works dealing with mantras and yantras of various deities, their puja and its essentials; their Sadhana, Homa, Bali etc., and Prayogas being particular employmentof mantras and yantras for achieving various objects. He has also listed out 148 Jana Mantra kalpas, Mantras and Vidyas in which Catus.sasthi Yogini Yantra has been specifically mentioned[34]. The other interesting Tantra works have been –

  • Mayura.vahini.vidya (Sl.No.4).
  • Cintamani.sampradaya (20).
  • Rsabha.Cakra.mantra (40).
  • Aristanemi.Cakra.mantra (42).
  • Vardhamana.Cakra.mantra (43).
  • Rakta.Padmavati.kalpa (47).
  • Rakta.Padmavati.Vriddha.Pujana.vidhi (48), etc.

This clearly proves that the Jaina Mantras, Yantras and Tantras had played a key role in the construction of Jasina temples with mathematical design, geometrical pattern, and mandala ground plans and of course, women played their role in such practices. Sehdev Kumar[35] in his book has shown with beautiful photographs as to how the Kamalayantras of different pattern and the Goddesses have been incorporated in the Mandalas, Chakras and of course in the Cosmos.

Conclusion: Men cannot ignore and dispense with women in any aspect of social process, as their role is inter-woven in every factor of social institution. Even in religion, in spite of their inhibitions with natural menstruation, periodic cycles, female sexuality, pregnancy, child-birth, menopause etc., they have been capable of achieving like men in many fields. Therefore, to become a nun, an ascetic, Yogini or Siddha is not a difficult task considering the ancient Indian tradition. Otherwise, there could not have been so many goddesses, in spite of their suppression, oppression and enslavement, as has been accused often. That Sakti defeated Siva and stood on him figuratively proves that at times, women also dominated in Indian society. However, there had been restrictions and prohibitions, whenever, there was foreign intrusion, invasion and domination, as exhibited in the injunctions incorporated in Dharma Sastras. Of course, they were amended by the rulers also, according to their convenience or to control the society. Thus, there had been contradictions in different periods, as could be noted from the Kalivrajyas or injunctions during the age of Kali. That is why the contradiction of diction that Brahmins should not cross the ocean, but many Brahmins were found in the Southeast Asian countries, till medieval periods. Women were prohibited from reading scriptures, however, there were woman pundits, debaters, mathematicians, astronomers and so on. Therefore, the Jaina women would have played a crucial role in the Jaina Mantra, Yantra and Tantra, but the orthodox Jains might have played down their part either by suppressing the medieval literature or interpreting scriptures to prove the male-dominance. In any case, the Yogini system proves the excellence of Jaina women and their contribution to Indian cosmology, cosmography, Mandalas, Chakras and temple construction.

[1] The word is modern Greek πορνογραφία (pornographia), which is reportedly derives from the Greek words πόρνη (pornē, “prostitute” and πορνεία – pornea, “prostitution”), and γράφειν (graphein, “to write or to record”, derived meaning “illustration”, cf. “graph”), and the suffix -ία (-ia, meaning “state of”, “property of”, or “place of”), thus meaning “a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution”. However, its usage is found only in modern times, perhaps in the 19th century writings.

[2] Based on many authorities, though the sources have not been mentioned individually.

[3] Incidentally, the Nathas were known as Jogi or Jugi in Bengal and Assam and their occupation was weaving.

[4] Digha-Nikaya, I.49, 57-58; Majjhima-Nikaya, I.198, as noted byM. N. Singh.

Madan Mohan Singh, Life in North-Eastern India in Pre-Mauryan Times (with special reference to c.600 BC to 325 BC), Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi, 1967, p.99.

[5] Bhagavat-Sutta, XV, pp.552-553. Narrated by A. L. Basham.

A. L. Basham, History and Doctrine of Ajivakas, Luzac & Co, London, 1951, pp.60-61.

[6] Bhagavat-Sutta, XV, pp.554-555.

[7] J. C. Jain, opt.cit, pp.262-263.

[8] Padmanabh S. Jaini, Christianity and Jainism: An Interfaith Dialogue, Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2009. G. W. Mcpherson, The Virgin Birth: A reply to Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick’s attack upon the Virgin Birth of Christ, Yonkers Book Company, 34 St. Andrews PL, Yonkers, New York, 1922, p.5.

[9] Bhagwan Mahaveer, the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankar was born at midnight on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the month Chaitra. He was in the womb of Devananda for 82 days and in the womb of Trishala for a period of 195 days and a half (in all nine months and seven and a half days).


[10]  Vincent Smith, The Jaina Stupa and other Antiquities of Mathura, North-western Provinces and Oudh, Volume.V, Muttra Antiquities, ASI, New Imperial Series, Allahabad, 1901, p.49.

[11] Radhakamal Mukerjee, The March of Tantrika Art over the Pacific, Studies in Indian History, pp.289-296.

[12] Prabodh Chandra Bagchi, Studies in the Tantras, Part – I, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, 1975, pp.1-5, pp.45-53.

[13] Gymnasium was a place, where all men and women should come in nude to discuss, debate or play games in competitions.

[15] Ernest de Bunsen, The angel-messiah of Buddhists, Essenes, and Christians, Longmans,. Green and Co.., London, 1880, p.78.

[16] Edwarsd Pococke, Indian in Greece, John J. Griffin and Co., London, 1852, p.14, 29, 120, 128, 198 etc., and also see Appendices on Jainism, the Jains etc.

Col. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi, 1971.

[17] C. W. King, The Gnostics and their remains Ancient and Medieval, David Nutt, London, 1887, p.43, 45, 117, 295, 390, 447.

[18] Edward Thomas, Jainism or the Early faith of Asoka, Trubner & Co., London, 1877.

[19] Padmanabh S. Jaini, pp.18-19.

[21] N. N. Bhattacharya, History of the Tantric Religion (A Historical, Ritualistic and Philosophical study), Manohar, New Delhi, 1987, pp.181-193.

[22] Suyagada II.2; Thana IV.4. Quoted by N. N. Bhattacharya, opt.cit, pp.185-186.

[23] N. N. Bhattacharya, opt.cit, p.345.

[24] Analayo, Theories on the Foundation of the Nun’s Order – a Critical Evaluation, in JCBSSL, Vol.VI, can be accessed from here: http://buddhistinformatics.ddbc.edu.tw/analayo/TheoriesFoundation.pdf

[25] Jagdishchandra Jain, Life in Ancient India as depicted in Jaina Canon and Commentaries, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi, 1984, p.262.

[26] J. C. Jain, opt.cit, pp.263-264.

[27] Incidentally, Kamasutra also mentions about 64 arts.

[29] Such fine architectural features can be seen in the Jain temples of Rajasthan e.g, Main Dome of magnificent carving on white marble in Luna Vasahi

[30] Mohanlal Bhagawandas Jhavery, Comparative and Critical Study of Mantrasastra (with special Treatment of Jain Mantravada) Being the introduction to Padmavati kalpa, published by Sarabhai Manilal Nawab, Ahmedabad, 1944, p.

[31] M. B. Jhavery, opt.cit, pp.272-273.

[32] S. K. Ramachandra Rao, Tantra, Mantra, Yantra: The Psychology, Arnold-Heoinmann, New Delhi, 1970, p.54.

[33] Mohanlal Bhagawandas Jhavery, opt.cit, pp.291-293.

[34] Ibid, Sl.No.119, p.292.

[35] Sehdev Kumar, Jain Temples of Rajasthan, Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, New Delhi, 2001.

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